15 October, 2016

Parts of a Composition in Indian Classical Music

In Indian Classical Music, a Composition has four parts, of which only the first two are performed regularly e.g. in a Khayaal:
1.      Asthaai including mukhda
2.      Antara
3.      Sanchari
4.      Abhog

Note: It is presumed that the reader understands the concept of “sam“ - the first beat of a taal (rhythm) cycle. It is also the syllable(s) of the bandish (composition) on which the first beat of the taal cycle falls. When an artist begins a composition, the tabla enters at the sam syllable.

As an example, let us take a well-known bandish in the afternoon raag, Shuddha Sarang:

The lyrics of the composition are:

Ab mori baat maan le piharava 
Main jaaon tope vaari vaari vaari 

Prem piya mukh so nahin bolat 
Binati karat main to haari haari haari

अब मोरी बात मान ले पिहरवा,
मैं जाऊं तोपे वारी वारी वारी 

प्रेम पिया मुख सो नहीं बोलत 
बिनती करत मैं तो हारी हारी हारी 

Here is a recording where the lyrics proceed as written above, in a simple format:
Ab Mori Baat - Dhrut Teen Taal - Raag Shudha Saarang https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5EEFiMdxNew 

Now hear the same composition by Veena Sahastrabuddhe, where you can appreciate the intricate movements and return to sam with the mukhda and asthaai:
Vidushi Veena Sahastrabuddhe Shuddha Sarang - ab Mori Baat Man le https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CIuGR4w3dI8

And now the description of each part:

1. Asthaai (pallavi in Carnatic music, base or refrain in western music)  is the first part of a composition, its first line serving as a  Mukhda, while the Asthaai itself serves as a base for the singer to returns to, repeatedly.

For example the Asthaai in the recordings:
Ab mori baat maan le piharava 
Main jaaon tope vaari vaari vaari 

Mukhda: literally 'face', is the opening phrase of an asthaai, which comes before, leads up to, and arrives on the sam. So a mukhda introduces & sets the tone. When artists improvise, they return to the Asthaai periodically, by picking up the mukhdaa at the right time.

For example the mukhda in the recordings:
"Ab mori baat." 

2. Antara: literally 'within'; (Anupallavi in Carnatic music, “Stanza” or “verse” in western music).it is the second part, a continuation from where the mukhda left off, sung in a high octave, focusing on the taar shadaj, with a good deal of text manipulation and repeated forays into asthaai;

For example the Antara in the recordings:
Prem piya mukh so nahin bolat 
Binati karat main to haari haari haari

3. Sanchari: literally, “wandering”; the 3rd section (Charanam in Carnatic music) - remains a free-flowing, section;

4. Abhoga: 4th or concluding section (Pallavi in Carnatic music); includes notes from all three octaves, and in present-day performances, may well be sung with the Sanchari, if these two sections are included.

10 October, 2016

Jaati

Jaati is a tonal classification of a Raag based on the number of notes employed in its Ascending & Descending  scale.
e.g. Pentatonic Scale - 5 notes = Audhav Jaati
Hexatonic Scale - 6 notes = Shadhav Jaati
Septatonic Scale - 7 notes = Sampoorna Jaati.
Thus there are 9 Jaatis based on the combinations of the number of notes in aaroh and avroh:
S#
Aar
oh
Avr
oh
Jaati
Examples of Raagas
1.       
7
7
Sampoorna - Sampoorna
Yaman, Aheer-Bhairav
2.       
7
7
Sampoorna -Sampoorna Vakra
Puria-Dhanashri, Dev-Gandhar
3.       
6
7
Shadhav-Sampoorna (Vakra)
Kausi-Kanada, Adana
4.       
6
6
Shadhav-Shadhav (Vakra)
Nayaki-Kanada, Gurjari-Todi
5.       
5
7
Audhav- Sampoorna
Sindhura
6.       
5
6
Audhav-Shadhav (Vakra)
Shuddha-Sarang, Desi
7.       
5
5
Audhav-Audhav (Vakra)
Gunkali, Deshkar, Megh-Malhar
8.       
4
6
Surtar-Audhav (Vakra)
Gorakh-Kalyan
9.       
5
7
Audhav-Sampoorna (Vakra)
Kamod, Basant, Khambavati

Obviously there are notes in raagas from S. No 3 onwards in Aaroh or Avroh that are not employed in whole Raag.
It is possible that a note not employed in Aaroh may be used in Avroh and vice-versa.
In some cases, the rendering becomes Vakra (with a turn around that note). This is indicated in Jaati. e.g. Audhav-Sampoorna Vakra and so on.

40 PRINCIPLES OF INDIAN CLASSICAL MUSIC (as stated by Vishnu Narayana Bhaatkhande)

1.      Bilawal is a Shuddha Saptak or Thaat (The basic [natural] scale).
2.      Raags are divided into 3 main categories, which are called Jaatis:
    1. Audava (5 swaras),
    2. Shadav (6 swaras) and
    3. Sampurna (7 swaras).
3.      A Raag must have at least 5 or more musical notes out of total 7 (including Komal and Tivra).
4.      Expansion of the 3 main Jaatis form 9 total Jaatis based upon the number of swaras used in Aaroh and Avaroh of the Raag. The 9 Jaatis are:
    1. Audava-Audava (5-5),  
    2. Audava-Shadava (5-6),
    3. Audava-Sampurna (5-7),
    4. Shadava-Audava (6-5),
    5. Shadava-Shadava (6-6),
    6. Shadava-Sampurna (6-7),
    7. Sampurna-Audava (7-5),
    8. Sampurna- Shadava (7-6),
    9. Sampurna-Sampurna (7-7).
5.      The Raag is categorized under some Thaat and has Aaroh, Avaroh, Vaadi, Samvaadi, Time of singing, rasa etc.
6.      Samvaadi is either fourth or fifth to the Vaadi swara. If ‘Vaadi’ is in the first half of the scale (Purvang/East) then ‘Samvaadi’ will be in the second part (Uttarang/West) and vice versa.
7.      Reversing (changing) the Vaadi swara from purvang to uttarang of the scale, can change the Raag and its time of singing.
8.      Melody of the Raag may be increased by using ‘Vivaadi’ swara but it is not advisable to the students.
9.      Vaadi swara is the deciding note that the particular Raag is Poorva-Raag or an Uttara-Raag.
10.   Fixing the time of Raags is based on 3 categories shown below:
    1. Komal Re, Dha;  
    2. Shuddha Re, Dha and
    3. Komal Ga, Ni.
11.   Ma is called adhav-darshak swara and it decides whether the Raag is to be sung at the time of day or night.
12.   Where the swaras Komal Ga, Ni are present, the Raag will be sung in the afternoon or mid-night.
13.   Sandhi-Prakash Raags are normally followed by Raags with Re, Ma, Dha, Ni shudha.
14.   Shadaja, Madhyam and Pancham are important swaras in the Raags of third prahar of day or night.
15.   Tivra Madhyam is mainly present in the night time Raags and rarely in the day time Raags.
16.   Sa, Ma and Pa swaras are accepted as a part of purvaang and also the uttaraang of the scale (Saptak). So the Raags with the Vaadi swara from these notes can be performed at any time and they are called ‘Sarav-Kaalik-Raags”.
17.   Ma and Pa both cannot be absent from a Raag.
18.   Shadaja swara is always present in each Raag i.e. Shadaja cannot be a Varjit swara of a Raag.
19.   Both forms of a swara in a Raag cannot be performed after one another but exceptions are there as in Raag Lalit.
20.   The beauty of the Raag can be enhanced by performing at the time defined.
21.   Tivra Madhyam and Komal Nishadh together in a Raag are found very rarely.
22.   The Raags with both Madhyam are similar in nature. Their Aaroh differs but the Avaroh is quite similar. Entrance of the Antraas in these Raags is also similar.
23.   The Raags of first prahar of the night with both Madhyams, Shuddha Ma is present in Aroh and Avaroh but Tivra Ma is utilized in Avaroh only and the Thaat with Tivra Madhyam is used for this type of Raags instead of thaats with Shudha Madhyam.
24.   The rule in Raags of first prahar of night: Nishadh in Aaroh and Gandhar in Avaroh are used as Vakra-Swara. Normally Nishadh is weak in Avaroh.
25.   In Indian classical music ‘Raag’ is more important than ‘Taal’ but in Carnatic Music it is opposite. Here the Taal is more important than Raag.
26.   The special characteristic of Poorva-Raags is in their Aroh and the Uttar-Raags in Avaroh.
27.   Each thaat can produce Poorva-Raags and Uttar-Raags.
28.   In ‘Gambhir-Prakriti’ (serious natured) Raags, Sa Ma and Pa are the most important swaras and mostly they are more effective in the Mandra-Saptak (lower octave) but in Kshudra-Raags (light-mood/Thumri-ang Raags) this is absent.
29.   Karun’ and ‘Shant’ rasa is present in ‘Sandhi-Prakash-Raag’, ‘Shringar’ and ‘Hasya’ in Raags with Re Ga Dha shudha and Raags with Komal Ga, Ni bring into play ‘Veer’ and ‘Raudra’ Rasa.
30.   Par-Male-Praveshak’ Raags (with the character of two thaats) are rendered at the time of entering from one thaat’s Raags to another thaat’s Raags.
31.   Sandhi-Prakash’ Raags are sung at the time of sunrise and sunset and they are followed by the Raags with Re, Ga, Dha shudha or Raags with Ga, Ni, Komal.
32.   In the Raags with Komal Nishadh as in Raags Kafi and Khamaj normally Shuddha Nishadh is also practised in their Aroh.
33.   A group of two, three or four notes may be called ‘Taan’ but not ‘Raag’.
34.   The swaras (notes) in a Raag can be used as less, more or equal, and less are not prohibited.
35.   Sa, Ma and Pa swaras are prominent in the Raags sung after twelve in the morning and night.
36.   Swara Re and Dha are either absent or insignificant in the Aaroh of afternoon Raags but Ga and Ni are at their bursting magnificence.
37.   The Raags with Sa, Ma or Pa as Vaadi Swaras are of serious (Gambhir) nature.
38.   In the morning Raags Komal Re, Dha are prominent and sunset time Raags have prominence of Shuddha Dha and Ni.
39.   ‘NSrG’ combination of swaras immediately indicates the ‘Sandhi-Prakash’ (daybreak or twilight) Raags.
40.   Poorva Raags are highly structured in their Aroh and Uttar Raags are more elaborate in Avaroh.

Frequently Asked Questions on Indian Classical Music

Why is Bhairav / MayamaLavagauLa the first raaga to be taught?

Sri Purandara Das decided that "Malava gowla" of the South was most suited for beginners. The corresponding Raag in the North is called "Bhairav".

In "Malavagowla" subsequently named as "Maya Malavagowla", the difference of pitch between 'Re' and 'ga', and 'dha' and 'ni' are the same and the notes sa-re-ga-ma and pa-dha-ni-sa are perfect concordant notes. That is why Purandara Das found Maya Malavagowla the best Raag to begin lessons in classical music.

Why is Bhairavi / Sindhu Bhairavi usually the last last raaga during any performance? (Carnatic equivalent Madhyamavati is also used as the closing kriti).

Perhaps Bhairavi’s HIGH EQ (Emotional Quotient) makes it suitable for the finale!!  Also, to the best of my knowledge, it is one of the "time-free" raagas (like Pahadi, Dhani, etc.,) and hence can be performed at any time of the day.

"Madhyamavati" (MEGH in northern classical) is performed at the end of concert since it is believed to "cure" all mistakes committed by performer during earlier performances!  Madhyamavati is called "Sarva-raga-dosha-pariharini".  In any case, it sets a very peaceful mood and is very much suited at the end.

Sources of Names of Raags

1.      Names of Hindu deities:
a.      Kedaar,
b.      Bhairav,
c.       Gouri,
d.      Durga.
2.      Tribal melodies:
a.      Ahiri,
b.      Asavari,
c.       Gujari.
3.      Folk tunes of regions:
a.      Marwa,
b.      Jaunpuri,
c.       Pahadi.
4.      Names of their creators:
a.      Miya Taansen: Miya ki Malhar , Miya ki Todi
b.      Bilaskhan (son of Taansen): Bilaskhani Todi
c.       Gorakh Naath to bring his guru back: Gorakh Kalyan
d.      Performing Artists e.g. Pt Bhimsen Joshi: Raag Kalashree (combination of Kalawati and Bageshree).
5.      Miscellaneous Sources:
a.      Darbaari Kanada is supposed to been derived from the Carnatic version of Kanada but sung in darbars in front of the kings for evening concerts.

09 October, 2016

A GLOSSARY OF INDIAN CLASSICAL MUSIC



S. No.
TERM
DEFINITION
1.       
Aakaar 
Vocalization using the long vowel ‘aa’

2.       
Aalaap
Literally, it means a “dialogue” between a musician and a raaga; it is a prelude; a non-metrical or unmetered part of a performance in which the raaga unfolds slowly & systematically; there are no words and no fixed rhythm; it is the purest form of melody.
3.       
Aandolan
Literally, a “swing” – it is a slow & delicate oscillation on a single note; an undulating vibrato; alternation between the notes and the shrutis that are next to each other.
4.       
Aaroh
also known as Aarohi, Arohana, Ascent; a systematic arrangement or sequence of notes in ascending order between Madhya Shadaja (S) and Taar Shadaja (S') - each note being higher than the preceding note. Example: Sa, Re, Ga, Ma, Pa, Dha, Ni
5.       
Aavartan
also known as Aavrutti; the complete cycle of a taal from one sam to the next.
6.       
Aavirbhaava & Tirobhaav
The process of camouflaging a Raaga temporarily is termed Tirobhav or deviation; the coming back to the original Raaga form after the deviation is Aavirbhav. So it is the making visible of the original raaga form after concealing it first. Literally, Aavirbhav means "to take the form/shape/attitude/personality of". Tirobhav means "to disappear".
7.       
Aavrutti
See Aavartan
8.       
Abhoga
also known as Abhogi; closing movement in a musical composition, especially in the Dhrupad music. 
9.       
Acchop Raaga
Lesser known raaga.
10.    
Achala Swaras
The notes Shadaja and Pancham are fixed or immovable on the scale.
11.    
Aftaab-e-Mausiqui
An honourable title conferred on an eminent musician.
12.    
Alankar
Alankar literally means ornaments – in a rendition, any specific melodic presentation with notes in succession. For example: Meend, Gamak, Aandolan.
13.    
Alpatva
Smallness.
14.    
Ang
Style e.g. Gayaki Ang - vocal style.
Limb or part e.g. Raga-ang indicates the root to which a given raga might belong.
15.    
Antar Gandhaar
Shudha Gandhar
16.    
Antaraa अंतरा  
Second section or part of the composition; its melodic progression takes place generally in the uttarang region of the octave or above.
17.    
Antya
The last section of a musical composition, after which the recital ends.
18.    
Anuvaadi
also known as Assonant notes; notes other than Vaadi and Samvaadi of a raaga, that are neither highlighted nor downplayed.
19.    
Apabhramsa
Distortion of language.
20.    
Asthaai
“standing”, “constant”; 1st as well as the fundamental part of a composition which is frequently repeated during the entire aalaap; its melodic progression generally takes place in the poorvang region of the octave and below.
21.    
Asthaan
Region or area, e.g. Mandra Asthan means lower octave region.
22.    
Ati
An extreme. for example, Ati Vilambit Laya means extremely slow tempo; Ati komal svar अति कोमल means very flat note. 
23.    
Auchar
A brief non-metrical melodic introduction preceding the section in meter.
24.    
Audava
'Paanch Swaras' or five notes; pentatonic.
25.    
Avroh अवरोह
also known as Avarohana, Avaroh, Descent; the systematic arrangement of notes in descending order between Taar Shadaja (S') and Madhya Shadaja (S) - here each note is lower than the preceding note.
Example: Ni, Dha, Pa, Ma, Ga, Re, Sa
26.    
Badhat बढत
Development or elaboration of a Raaga; when starting a performance, the artist slowly and gradually introduces the swaras, one at a time while weaving and establishing characteristic patterns of the raaga. For instance, when performing raag Yaman, the artist may first dwell on only Madhya Sa and Mandra Ni. Then introduce Mandra Dha, and dwell on Sa, Ni and Dha for a while. And then introduce Madhya Re, and so on.
27.    
Baithak
Informal music session within close proximity of the performer.
28.    
Bandish बंदिश
A composition that is bound within the frame of a raaga. The text, normally in Brijbhasha, provides space for musical elaboration through a felicitous selection of vowels. A unique combination of swar, laya and words which carries all of the main characters of the raaga. Bandish consists of two parts Asthaai & Antaraa.
29.    
Been बीन
also known as pungi; it consists of a mouth-blown air reservoir made from a gourd, which channels air into two reedpipes.
30.    
Bhajan
Devotional song eulogizing Indian Gods and Goddesses; sung in light classical style, it is usually set to 6, 7 or 8 beat cycles. 
31.    
Bhakti Geet
See Bhajan
32.    
Bol alaap
Alaap movements using words.
33.    
Bol Baant
Rhythmic variations in Dhrupad or Khayal with the text of the song.
34.    
Bol Taan बोलतान
A fast melodic passage which is articulated with the words of the song; a difficult type of a taan as correct pronunciation, the beauty of the words, meaning of the composition, everything has to be taken into consideration.
35.    
Bol बोल
The words making up a vocal composition or which are played on rhythm instruments e.g. sound syllable/s; as in Tabla Bols; also a mnemonic by which drum strokes and right-hand strokes of plucked instruments are communicated.
36.    
Brajbhasha
A dialect of Hindi spoken around Mathura in U.P.
37.    
Carnatic
Ancient classical music of South India.
38.    
Chaiti
Folk songs of Uttar Pradesh, sung in the month of Chaitra (March - April).
39.    
Chakra
Carnatic music term - 72 Mēḷakarta raagas are split into 12 groups called chakrās, each containing 6 raagas.
40.    
Chalan bheda
Melodic contours.
41.    
Chalan चलन
See Pakad
42.    
Chaturang
Composition with four distinct parts: Khayal, bols of tabla, sargam and taraana.
43.    
Chautaala
See Chautal 
44.    
Chautal चौताल
Name of a taal of 12 counts (2+2+2+2+2+2+2) which is mainly used in dhrupad compositions
45.    
Cheez चीज
A vocal composition, usually with two parts corresponding to the asthaai and antaraa.
46.    
Daadra दादरा
Name of a taal of 6 counts (3+3); Six beat cycle. Also see Thumri - Daadra
47.    
Darbar दरबार
The royal court
48.    
Deepchandi
Name of a taal of 14 counts (3+4+3+4); mainly used in thumri; a fourteen beat cycle.
49.    
Deshi
A regional version of music, more flexible than the classical style.
50.    
Dhaivat धैवत
Dha - Sixth musical note.
51.    
Dhak
A drum instrument mainly prevalent in Bengal, essentially used during festive season.
52.    
Dhamaar धमार
Name of a taal of 14 counts (5+2+3+4); fourteen beat cycle.
Also a vocal genre and type of song which is set to dhamaar taal and related to dhrupad; text describing play between Krishna and Radha and the inhabitants of Vrindaban;
53.    
Dhol
A drum popularly used for light forms of music.
54.    
Dhrupad ध्रुपद
Ancient, structured form of classical music reigning supreme for centuries (15th onward) in North India before the advent of Khayal; it is the oldest surviving vocal genre in Hindustani music after vedic chants. It has a particular structure & singing style; usually has four parts corresponding to four musical sections;
55.    
Drut द्रुत
The fast tempo or speed of a Taal.
56.    
Ektaal एकताल
Name of a taal of 12 counts (2+2+2+2+2+2); twelve beat cycle.
57.    
Gaan Samay
See Samay
58.    
Gamak गमक
A heavy shake between two notes; a melodic embellishment giving special vibratory effects; the many ways of ornamenting notes.
59.    
Gandhar गंधार
Ga - Third musical note
60.    
Gayakee
also known as Gayaki. Style of vocal singing.
61.    
Geet
Indian term for a song or composition.
62.    
Gharana Gayakee
Authentic style of singing following a specific gharana.
63.    
Gharana घराना
Schools or Styles of Indian Classical Music; the tradition and lineage of a musical family, a stylistic school; concept peculiar to Hindustani Classical music. The names of Gharanas are almost always derived from the city, district or state that the founder lived in. Various Gharanas adopted their own particular approach to presentation, technique and repertoire.
64.    
Gharaanedaar
A musician belonging to a traditional school.
65.    
Ghazal
A Persian or Urdu poetic genre of poetry;
66.    
Graama
Ancient music scales -  Shadaja, Madhyama, and Gandhar Graamas.
67.    
Guru
Preceptor who shows the life - path, guide.
68.    
Gurukul
Abode or a traditional retreat where a guru teaches his students.
69.    
Haripurana
A Hindu scripture.
70.    
Harkat
Movements
71.    
Harmony
When two or more notes are produced simultaneously and the combination sounds agreeable and pleasant; Indian classical music does not have the concept of harmony, Western classical music does.
72.    
Hindustani 
Pertaining to northern India
73.    
Hori होरी
A vocal genre, where lyrics express the love-pranks of Radha & Krishna during the spring-time festival of colours known as holi.
74.    
Jaati
Tonal classification of a Raaga based on the number of notes employed in its Ascending & Descending scales. E.g. Pentatonic Scale - 5 notes = Audhav Jaati; Hexatonic Scale - 6 notes = Shadhav Jaati; Septatonic Scale - 7 notes = Sampoorna Jaati
75.    
Jhalak
Glimpse
76.    
Jhaptal झपताल
Name of a taal of 10 counts (2+2+2+2+2); ten beat cycle.
77.    
Jhoola
Folk songs of Uttar Pradesh describing swings.
78.    
Jhumraa Tal
Slow Indian rhythmic form of 14 (3+4+3+4) beats. Fourteen beat cycle.
79.    
Jod जोड
Joining’ - usually the second section of an instrumental alaap or dhrupad alaap in which a clear rhythmic pulse is introduced.
80.    
Kajri
Folk music of Uttar Pradesh sung during rains.
81.    
Kan कन
A single grace note or inflection before or after an articulated tone.
82.    
Kathak कथ्थक
The main form of North Indian classical dance.
83.    
Keharva कहरवा
Name of a taal of 8 counts (4+4); eight beat cycle.
84.    
Khali खाली
Weaker ‘empty’ unstressed beat of taala, which generally divides a taala into two parts & usually serves as a counter balance to the first beat, sam.
85.    
Khand
See Vibhag
86.    
Kharaj
Notes of lower octave.
87.    
Khatka 
Several notes rendered in one stroke;
88.    
Khayal ख्य़ाल
The prevalent vocal genre in Hindustani classical music; In Farsi language, Khayal means thought or imagination. This is the most popular form in Indian Classical Music today. There is improvisation within the Raaga using the Bandish, Aalap, Taan, Bol & Sargam. There are two types of Khayal -
1. Bada Khayal बडा ख्य़ाल - slow or vilambit tempo.
2. Chhota Khayal - medium to fast tempo.
89.    
Komal कोमल
Soft or Flat; e.g. Komal Swaras – Rishabh, Gandhar, Dhaivat, Nishad moved below their shuddha place on the scale;  a note lowered by a semitone.
90.    
Krintaan
A pulling off and hammering technique used on string instruments.
91.    
Kriti
A format of musical composition in Carnatic music. 
92.    
Kshudra Prakriti
Ragas commonly used in folk idioms, “kshudra” (lit. small).
93.    
Lakshan
Introduction, definitive principles, or rules; Lakshan Geet - a kind of Bandish in which the song text conveys all of the characters of the raaga.
94.    
Laya लय
Tempo or speed
95.    
Layakaari लयकारी
‘Playing with rhythm’; rhythmic variations and improvisations; use of different rhythmic patterns.
96.    
Maatra
Beat; the basic unit from which a taala is formed; the time span required for a single clap.
97.    
Madhya Laya मध्य़
Middle or Medium tempo
98.    
Madhya Saptak
Middle pitch register or Octave - begins from the starting note Sa; the pitch that we regularly speak in; most used octave in singing.
99.    
Madhyam मध्यम
 Ma - Fourth musical note.
100. 
Mandra Saptak मंद्र
Middle pitch register or Octave - below the starting note Sa; sounds serious. ‘low’;
101. 
Manjari
Collection, bouquet.
102. 
Meend मींड
Slide or glide or glissando - a gradual slide (portamento) or smooth flowing passage from one note to another, faintly going over the intermediate notes in ascending or descending order.
103. 
Mehfil
Concert
104. 
Melaa
The basic organization of the notes in aroha and avaroha melody in Carnatic Music.
105. 
Melody
A sequence of individual notes (not simultaneous) that sounds agreeable and pleasant. Indian classical music is melodic. Western classical music involves melody as well as harmony.
106. 
Mishra
A melody which has features of more than one raaga.
107. 
Mridangam
Barrel shaped drum used in Carnatic music
108. 
Mukhdaa मुखडा
Literally “Face” - first line of the composition; the cadence that punctuates each section of an alaap; the phrase of a composition that leads to the first beat of the rhythm cycle, Sam;
109. 
Mukhya Ang
See Pakad.
110. 
Murki मुरकी
A fast and delicate ornament involving two or more tones, a kind of tonal embellishment.
111. 
Naada
Sanskrit for sound in general. Naada is of two types:
·        Ahata / Ahad (struck): A sound produced artificially, e.g. by striking, plucking, blowing, etc.
·        Anahata / Anaahad (un-struck): The natural sound energy pervading the universe which is not audible to human ear.
112. 
Naada Brahma
The whole universe was created from the energy of sound.
113. 
Naatak
Drama; a theater performance. 
114. 
Nishaadha निषाद
Ni - Seventh musical note
115. 
Niyaasa
Closing note; cadence; the act of halting or staying on a swar in a composition, before taking the next swar.
116. 
Nomtom alaap नोम तोम 
Using abstract syllables in development of a Raaga in alaap, before presenting a dhrupad or dhamaar composition.
117. 
Note
See Svar
118. 
Octave
See Saptak
119. 
Pakhawaj
A cylindrical percussion instrument, right side having a treble face and the left side the bass; can be played solo or accompanies Dhrupad.
120. 
Pakad
also known as PakaR. Movement’; characteristic musical catch phrase of a raaga; a small group of notes which embodies the unique features & characteristic ascending and descending movements of the raaga, from which a raaga can be easily identified; keeps it distinct from its neighbouring raagas.
121. 
Paltas
Ascending or descending notes for practice.
122. 
Pancham पंचम
 Pa - Fifth Musical note
123. 
Pandit
Expert; learned man; scholar; an honorary title given to an expert.
124. 
Parampara
Tradition
125. 
Poorvaang
Lower tetrachord or octave - Sa Re Ga Ma / modified to Sa Re Ga Ma Pa.
126. 
Prabandha
Perfectly composed piece of music.
127. 
Prati
also known as Tivra. A sharp musical note that is higher in pitch by a semitone.
128. 
Pukaar
A musical intonation using higher notes.
129. 
Purab ang
Characteristics of a style of music prevalent in the eastern Uttar Pradesh e.g. Benaras
130. 
Raag rasa
See Rasa
131. 
Raaga Lakshana
Notes and other features which prominently indicate a raaga.
132. 
Raaga Mishran
See Mishra
133. 
Raaga राग
A musical structure of usually five or more notes or Swaras in a particular sequence of ascending and descending order, with an identity and mood which is aesthetically pleasing.
134. 
Raaganga
The word is a combination of raaga + anga and signifies a unique phrase in a Raaga suggesting its characteristic feature. This key-phrase is the Raagang and if any Raaga contains this key-phrase, that Raaga belongs to the family of main Ang-Raag.
135. 
Raagini
Raagini is the feminine form of raaga.
136. 
Navrasas
See Rasa
137. 
Rasa
The emotional state or emotion each raaga invokes. In various art forms like music & Indian Classical Dance, there are nine rasas or Navrasas:
        i.          Adabhuta or Vichitra (wonder),
      ii.          Bhayaanaka (fear),
     iii.          Hasya (happy),
     iv.          Karuna (sympathy),
      v.          Raudra or Krodh (anger),
     vi.          Shaanta (peace).
    vii.          Shringaar (sensual),
   viii.          Veera (heroic),
     ix.          Vibhatsaya (disgust),
In addition to the nine Rasas, few more appeared later (esp. in literature): Bhakti (Devotional), Virah, Vairagya, Vatsalya, etc  
138. 
Rasika
Tasteful, admirer of beauty, creator of Rasa.
139. 
Rishabh रिषभ
Re - Second musical note.
140. 
Riyaaz
Practice
141. 
Rudra veena
Literally means "the veena dear to Shiva”; it is a large plucked string instrument.
142. 
Rupak रूपक
Name of a taal of 7 counts (3+2+2); seven beat cycle.
143. 
Sadhana
Practice with devotion.
144. 
Sadra Khayal
Composition set to slow Jhaptaal.
145. 
Sam सम
Generally, the first beat of atala; from which the taala starts; usually accentuated.
146. 
Samay
Time period; e.g. Gaan-Samay a particular time to perform each raaga. the Time Cycle employed in Raagas begins at 6 AM and ends at 6 PM for the day (12 hours) and for the night beginning 6 PM and ending at 6 AM next day (12 Hours). Each cycle (day & night) divided into time periods of 3 hours each called Prahar. So there are 4 Prahars in the Day Time Cycle and 4 Prahars in the Night Time Cycle. There are some Raagas which can be rendered at any time also called Sarv-Kaalik Raagas or All-Time Raagas viz; Raaga Bhairavi, Pahadi etc.
147. 
Sammelan
Conference
148. 
Sampoorna
Sampooran raagas are those that comprise of all the seven notes; heptatonic.
149. 
Samvaadita
Consonance; when two swaras are produced simultaneously and the combination sounds agreeable and pleasant; different combinations of swaras sound agreeable to varying degrees. The consonance of Sa and Sa (of two different saptaks) is the most agreeable and pleasant (highest concord), with Sa-Pa and Sa-Ma consonances following in descending order of concord.
150. 
Samvaadi Swar
Subsonant, “Queen” note; the second most important or prominent note in a raaga. This is the fourth or fifth note from the Vaadi; used lesser than the vaadi Swar.
151. 
Sanchaari
Sanchari means wandering. Third movement in a composition encompassing all the regions of the saptak.
152. 
Sandhi Prakaash
The raagas that are performed during the hours of twilight or sunrise & dusk or sunset are called Sandhi Prakaash Raagas. 
153. 
Sangeet संगीत
Sam (together) + Geet (Song); earlier referred to vocal, instrumental & dance but now refers only to music.
154. 
Saptak
The notes between one Sa to next Sa form a saptak (Sapt means seven); indian music does not count repeated notes as a part of the same octave which is the term used in western music.
155. 
Sarangi
A bowed string instrument without frets.
156. 
Sargam Geet
A song based on a raaga, made up of beautiful arrangements of notes displaying the characteristics of raaga along with various special notes used in a raaga; helps understand exact positions of notes, use of special notes & kan swaras; a composition or taan which uses the names of the notes;
157. 
Sargam सरगम
Indian solfegio; derived from the first four notes Sa, Re, Ga, Ma; Defines the scale of notes used in the composition of music. The seven sol-fa syllables used in oral and written notation;
158. 
Sarod
A popular stringed instrument without frets.
159. 
Semi-Classical
A sub - branch of Indian Classical Music in which the forms depend on the tune of a raaga, the rules of these raagas are not followed as strictly as in classical music. In these forms the words are equally important e.g. Thumri, Daadra, Tappa, Natya-Sangeet (Theatre-Songs) etc.
160. 
Shaastra
Treatise or text that explains the timeless rules and principles behind music. 
161. 
Shadaja षड्ज
also known as Shadj. Sa - First musical note
162. 
Shastriya Sangeet
Classical music.
163. 
Shaudava
Six notes; hexatonic
164. 
Shehnai
A wind instrument resembling an oboe.
165. 
Shishya
Disciple
166. 
Shruti
The sound interval between recognized notes or swaras; musical microtone; pitch; intonation.
167. 
Shuddha Swar शुध्द
‘Pure’, natural note.
168. 
Sitaar
A popular stringed instrument with frets.
169. 
Soz
Emotional appeal; a kind of composition (Qawali).
170. 
Sthaayi
See Asthaai
171. 
Surshree
An honorable title given to an eminent lady musician.
172. 
Svar स्वर
A musically useful sound which has a definite frequency; an Octave has 8 basic notes - Do Re Me Pha So La, Ti, Do. Represented in Indian Classical Music as a Saptak - Sa Re Ga Ma Pa Dha Ni
173. 
Svaroop
Image.
174. 
Taal ताल
also known as Taala. Originated from Sanskrit word "Taala" - literally a clap; a predisposed arrangement of beats, in a certain tempo, time span & structure;
175. 
Taaleem
Training, process of learning / teaching.
176. 
Taan Pradhan
Prominence of taans.
177. 
Taan Samrat
A title awarded to musicians who excel in the rendering of taans.
178. 
Taan तान
A fast melodic passage; a combination of notes rendered in a faster speed (More than 2 swaras in a beat or Maatra) weaving different patterns in ascending or descending order – an improvisation of the raaga through Sapaat Taans, Alankars, Gamak etc.
179. 
Taanpura तानपूरा
also known as Tamboora. A fretted long lute, a drone instrument which continuously provides the drone of basic note Sa as well as other supportive notes. Taanpura means to fill the void behind the music.
180. 
Taar तार
Upper octave, region, pitch or register. E.g. Taar Saptak starts from the Sa of the taar saptak, which is double the pitch of the starting Sa.
181. 
Taar Paran
A rhythmical exposition derived from Pakhaavaj Bols.
182. 
Tabla तबला
The main percussion instrument in Hindustani music, consisting of a pair of tuneable hand-played drums.
183. 
Tap Khayal
A blend of Khayal and Tappa.
184. 
Tappa टप्पा
One of the vocal genres of semi classical music featuring rapid movements and complex taans thickly knitted at every possible step with abrupt jumps from note to note; developed in Punjab, created by Shori Mian.
185. 
Taraana तराना
A vocal composition related to khayal, using ‘meaningless’ syllables as lyrics based on Persian and Arabic phonemes.
186. 
Teental
Sixteen beat cycle.
187. 
Teevra Swar
Sharp Note e.g. Madhyam, can become vikrut by going one note above the shuddha Madhyam.
188. 
Thaat
Thaat means to tie down as in frets; presently in Hindustani Classical Music, Pandit Bhatkande's 10 thaat classification followed; 10 different sets of musical scales with seven primary notes in order of ascent and in sequence; only to help categorise the maximum number of Hindustani raagas under it.
189. 
Theka
Expression of taala through bol's e.g. Dha Dhi Na, Dha Ti Na of Taala Dadra on tabla.
190. 
Thumri - Daadra
Popular semi classical idiom; two basic forms placed in the semi classical category; themes usually feminine; often romantic and portray the divine love between Lord Krishna & Radha. e.g. Kaun Gali Gayo Shyam; thumri has a slow tempo whereas Dadra is a medium paced or has faster tempo; these forms have specific Raagas such as the Khamaj, Des, Jhinjhoti, Kafi, etc and also specific Taalas such as the Deepchandi, Kehrwa, Dadra, Chachar etc; many folk songs have been adapted to the thumri-dadra style & in accordance with the theme are named as chaiti, kajri, sawan etc. Chaiti describes month of chait, Savani in month of sawan, Jhula describes a swing, Kajri songs of rains & hori of the spring festival of the sprinkling of coloured water.
191. 
Tirobhaava & Aavirbhaava
See Aavirbhaava & Tirobhaava.
192. 
Trivat
Idiom or composition with three prominent features - sargam, bols of tabla and tarana.
193. 
Uccharana bheda
Intonation of swaras.
194. 
Upaj
The act of repeating and emphasizing a svar at start of a performance; the artist presents the notes of the raaga one by one, (using aakaar or sargam).
195. 
Upanishads
Old Hindu scriptures.
196. 
Ustad
Guru, Expert, honorary title given to a learned musician.
197. 
Uttaraang
Upper tetrachord - Pa Dha Ni Sa / modified to Ma Pa Dha Ni Sa’.
198. 
Vaadi Bheda
Relative emphasis of svara.
199. 
Vaadi Svar
The most prominent or “King” Swar in the scale of a particular raga, used most frequently.
200. 
Vakra
Zigzag, indirect, or crooked.
201. 
Varana
The four Varanas are the four basic ways, on the basis of which musical tones are organized.
202. 
Varjit Swara
Omitted, deleted or avoided notes; e.g. Ma & Ni in Raga Bhupali.
203. 
Varjya Swara
See Varjit Swara
204. 
Vedangas
Associated with Vedas (Old Hindu scripture).
205. 
Vedas
Earliest Hindu scriptures.
206. 
Vibhaag
These are the partitions in a taala & are used to express it more beautifully.
207. 
Vikrit Swar
See Vikrut Swar
208. 
Vikrut Swar
Modifiable; movable notes e.g. Rishabh, Gandhar, Madhyam, Dhaivat and Nishad.
209. 
Vilambit Laya
Slow tempo
210. 
Vishranti Sthan
Stoppable Notes. These are the notes for ending Aalaps and Taans while rendering a Raag. E.g. Shadaj.
211. 
Vistaar
Elaboration of a group of notes in a particular raga.
212. 
Vivadi Swar
"one which produces dissonance"; either not included in a raaga or used very rarely by able singers in such a way that it enhances the beauty of the raaga.
213. 
Zamzama
A special type of Krintaan or Alankaar.

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