23 September, 2016

Raagas with less than 5 notes

2-, 3-, and 4-note Scales and Raaga/s 
According to some scale lists:

(1) The following scales have two notes each:
(i)   Honchoshi: Sa Ma Sa'
(ii)  Niagari: Sa, Pa, Sa'
(iii) Warao ditonic: Sa. Ni komal, Sa'

(2) The following scales have three notes each:
(i)   Peruvian tritonic 2: Sa, Ga komal, Dha, Sa'
(ii)  Ute tritonic: Sa, Ga komal, Ni komal, Sa'
(iii) Raga Malasri: Sa, Ga, Pa, Sa'
(iv)  4-semitone: Sa, Ga, Dha komal, Sa'
(v)   Raga Sarvasri: Sa, Ma, Pa, Sa'
(vi)  Sansagari: Sa, Ma, Ni komal, Sa'
(vii) Raga Ongkari: Sa, Ma teevra, Pa, Sa'

(3) The following scales/raga-s have four notes each:
(i)   Raga Lavangi: Sa, Re komal, Pa, Ni komal, Sa'
(ii)  Messiaen's truncated mode 5:  Sa, Re komal, Ma teevra, Pa, Sa'
(iii) Warao tetratonic: Sa, Re, Ga komal, Ni komal, Sa'
(iv)  Eskimo tetratonic: Sa, Re, Ga, Pa, Sa'
(v)   Genus primum: Sa, Re, Ma, Pa, Sa'
(vi)  Raga Bhavani: Sa, Re, Ma, Dha, Sa'
(vii) Messiaen's truncated mode 6: Sa, Re, Ma teevra, Dha komal, Sa'
(viii)Raga Sumukam: Sa, Re, Ma teevra, Ni, Sa'
(ix)  3-semitone: Sa, Ga komal, Ma teevra, Dha, Sa'
(x)   Bi Yu: Sa, Ga komal, Pa, Ni komal, Sa'
(xi)  Messiaen's truncated mode 6 inv.: Sa, Ga, Ma teevra, Ni komal, Sa'
(xii) Raga Mahathi; Sa, Ga, Pa, Ni komal, Sa'
(xiii)Messiaen's truncated mode 5 inv.: Sa, Ma, Ma teevra, Ni, Sa'
(xiv) Raga Malashri Sa, Ga, Pa, Ni

These scales/modes/raga-s have been reported in relation to the C major scale. Any microtones present, have not been taken into account. (source of article: http://www.soundofindia.com/showarticle.asp?in_article_id=-1455247239)


A very melodious ancient Raag-ang Raga.
Kafi Thaat
Origin of Raaga
Bageshree is an old and ‘big’ raga, popular with even women and children. It finds mention in the older treatises as “Vageeshwari.” This is a pure Raga that is generated from Raag Kafi by decreasing the influence of Rishabh and Pancham. It is said to have been invented by Tansen, the court singer of Mughal Emperor Akbar.
S 'n 'D 'n S m, m g..R S
All notes are shuddha except Gandhar and Nishad, which are Komal.
Svaras Vaadi
Maddhyam. The whole swaroop of the Raag is structured around the Pran of the Raag - Maddhyam.
Svaras Samvaadi
Svaras Niyaas
Maddhyam is a Nyaas Bahutva (Nyaas in both Aroah and Avroah) note. S 'n 'D n S m, g m D..m, n D..m, S m g..R S 'D 'n S m,
Svaras Aaroh
'n S g m, D n S'
Svaras Avroh
S' n D P m, g R S
Svaras Vajr / Vivaadi
Enemy / Forbidden Notes:  
R P in Aaroh
Almost all versions of Bageshree can be grouped under three main jatis:
(a) Audav-Shadava: R and P are varjit in arohi, P in avarohi prayogas.
(b) Audav-Sampoorna: R and P are varjit in arohi prayogas.
(c) Sampoorna-Sampoorna:  All the swaras are present, albeit in vakra prayogas.
Of these, the first – Audav-Shadava – is sufficient to define the raga-lakshanas.  Most of the performed versions, however, adopt the second – Audav-Sampoorna – scheme which involves a peculiar avarohi pancham-laden tonal cluster.  
Some consider basic swaroop as Shadav-Sampoorna, where Pancham is skipped in Aroah.
Svaras Special Usage
Khaas Prayog
Rishabh, often being Verjit in Aroah, is occasionally used Dheerga in Avroah, m g m g R..S, or as a Kann of Shadaj, m g (S)R S.
Gandhar is an important note that can be rendered Dheerga in Aroah and Avroah, m g..R S, 'n S g m, D m, g m g..R S, m P D g, or as a touch note, m g m g R S. At times, it is skipped as 'D 'n S m.
Pancham is generally used in a Vakra way,  n D P D m g;  or straight as S' n D P m g m n D P m g R S
Dhaivat is another important Nyaas Bahutva note in Uttrang, g m D, n D..m, m D n S' n D, m P D m g R S.
Nishad is an important passing note in both Aroah and Avroah, i.e. m D n S', S' n n D, m D n n S'.
Swara Sangaties like S-m, D-m, M g-M g, D g, are frequently used during elaboration of the Raag.
Pakad / Mukhya-Ang
Phrases like S 'n 'D 'n S m, m g..R S, or m g m D n D m, G m D are very peculiar to the Raga, and help in making it a Raga-ang Raga. Examples are Bageshri Kannhada, Bageshri Bahar, Shahana, Ragesri, Malgungi etc.
Its emotional nature is considered to be of a romantic longing – it depicts the emotion of a woman waiting for reunion with her lover. This Raag is suitable for both types of Shringars namely Virah and Karuna. It is a melody that pleases in isolation and is effective in emotional expression.
Raag Vistaar
Characteristic phrases: [M = shudhh]
S, n’ D’, D’ n’ S m, M g, (S)R, S
The madhyam is powerful, the melodic centre of gravity, as it were.  In the avarohi mode, a modest pause on g is prescribed (it helps prevent a spillover into Kafi). Also notice the kan of S imparted to R.
S g M, M g M D, D n D, D-M, g, (S)R, S
The raganga germ is embedded in this tonal sentence.  Of particular interest are the nyasa bahutva role of D and the D-M sangati.
g M D n S”
g M n D n S”
M D n S”

Each of these arohi tonal molecules is a candidate for the uttaranga launch.
S”, (n)D n D, M P D (M)g, (S)R, S
This phrase illustrates the modus operandi for insertion of pancham within a broader avarohicontext. The touch of P occasions moments of delicious frisson.  In some versions, P is explicity summoned in arohi prayogas such as D n D, P D n D.  When the audio clips roll out there will be opportunities aplenty to sample a variety of procedures involving pancham.
S g M, M g, RgM, M g (S)R, S
Observe the vakra arohi prayoga of R.  A thoughtless or cavalier approach here can lead to an inadvertant run-in with Abhogi – recall the uccharana bheda that separates Bageshree and Abhogi in this region of the poorvanga – and run afoul of the Bageshree spirit.
Samay / Time / Season
Second quarter of the night - madhya raatri (middle of the night).
Relationship with Carnatic Music
In the twentieth century, Bageshri raga found widespread popularity in Carnatic Music, in which it is said to be derived from the equivalent raga of Kafi, the 22nd Melakarta called Kharaharapriya. This raga is a janya raga (derived) as it does not have all the seven notes in the ascending scale. http://www.ragasurabhi.com/carnatic-music/raga/raga--bageshri.html
Arohanam:   S G2 M1 D2 N2 S
Avarohanam:   S N2 D2 M1 P G2 M1 R2 S
Bageshri has become a popular raga in Carnatic music.[1] It is pleasing but a scale that does not give much scope for elaboration (alapana).[1] This scale has been used in a few kritis (compositions). In addition, many devaranamas, ashtapadis, thiruppugazhs, and other lyrics have been set to tune in this raga. It is typically sung in concerts after the main piece, n viruttams, padams, bhajans and ragamalika.
Lakshan geet
1.      Raag Bageshri Swaramalika  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l9plxQW71ic
2.      Raag Baageshree Bandishi राग बागेश्री - बंदिशी (चीज) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p0lOhN28ogU
3.      Raag Bageshree..Swarmalika and Lakshan Geet https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6L86frtuaTc
1.      Raag Baageshree Swaramalika Lesson https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1ZyYJ-NpCU8
3.      raga lesson 1/4 - RAGA BAGESHRI - on sitar really beautifully brings out bageshri
4.      raga lesson 2/4 - RAGA RAGESHRI - on sitar really beautifully brings out diff frm bageshri
5.      raga lesson 4/4 - RAGAS SHAHANA & BAGESHRI KANADA - on sitar basics of two ragas which are very similar to the popular raga BAGESHRI --- these two ragas are: raga shahana and raga bageshri kanada
Related Raagas
Raga Bageshree Kanada: The name says it all.  The one caveat here is to stay clear of Shahana. Jha-sahab walks us through the terrain, peppering the development with pertinent remarks. Another posture in Bageshree Kanada by Amir Khan.

Hindi Film Songs
1.      Aankhon aankhon mein - Jaanwar - Lata Asha - Although there is a generous use of Rishabh, the prelude is all over the place, certain phrases are not exactly Bageshri like, along with the use of some vivadi notes, the song is still inspired by Bageshri.
2.      Baagon mein kaise ye phool khilte hain - Lata, Mukesh - S D Burman - Chupke Chupke (1975)  - http://youtu.be/v2lxsXa_Nkk
3.      Chaah Barbad Karegi_K.L.Saigal in Shahjahan Not many today appreciate the extent of sway K.L. Saigal held over the Indian musical imagination in the first half of the 20th century. Even if all Saigal-sahab did was snore, it would still have musical value. Here he wields Naushad‘s tune in SHAHJEHAN (1946)
4.      Chalak Rahi Boonde Mitwa, Starring: Kanan Kaushal, Movie- Maya Machindra 1975 - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=udgyyNMglJg
5.      Deewane tum deewane hum - Bezubaan www.youtube.com see the amazingly similar moods, this raaga creates - Karuna Ras = Sadness, Compassion, pity, sympathy... even in this supposedly lilting number... what a gem..
6.      Ek Daur Woh Bhi Tha - Shabana Azmi - Yeh Nazdekiyan -
7.      Giridhari Mane Chakar Rakho Ji Chakar Rehsu Baagh - Lata Mangeshkar - Toofan aur diya
9.      Hum To Pehli Hi Nazar Mein Rafi - apna bana ke dekho-
11.   JAA RE BEIMAAN TUJHE "BY MANNA DEY,M.D:D.DILIP-"PRIVATE SECRETARY-1962" http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2k6xbACsk0s&feature=player_embedded#at=53
13.   Jao jao nand ke laala - Lata - Rangoli - AS. GSA says this song has some jarringly unBageshree phrases: 'ni Sa Re ga Re Sa, for example. The great composer duo of Shankar-Jaikishan fashioned a crisp Bageshree in RANGOLI (1962), again centred on the theme of a naughty, intransigent Krishna.  Nobody can match Lata in this situation
14.   Judey Mein Gajra Mat Bandho - Dhhop chhao - Rafi
15.   Madhur-Madhur Sangeet Sunaao' by Pandharinath Kolhapure Poorna Seth, M Dey - Sangeet Samraat Tansen http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d6d-YCZjfF8 starts with Toot Gayee Mere Mann Ki Beena' by Poorna Seth goes on to madhur…. & then Sapt Suran Teen Graam' by Manna Dey. S N Tripathi's music on Shailendra's lyrics. VOOOOOOW S.N. Tripathi‘s bandish (1962)
16.   Man Ki Baat Jab Ho Thon Pe - 1- Abha Dhuliya & Arun Govil - Radha aur Seeta MD started with intention of bageshree and ended up everywhere
17.   Mohobbat hi na jo samjhe woh zaalim Woh Zalim Pyar Kiya Jane - Talat - Parchhaiyaan
18.   Naina Jo Naino Se Mile - http://www.esnips.com/doc/42056613-3fd8-417f-b576-0dc754948fb8/17-Track-17 movie is Daku Bhupat composer is S.L. Manohar P. Sushila and P.B. Srinivas... "Bhoole Se Kar Liya Pyaar, Ho Gayi Nadani" also from Bhoot Nath by lata... u can hear strains of nain so nain & jaag dard-e-ishq… Malgunji is a complex Raga of the Khamaj Thaat having elements of Raga Rageshri (in the ascent), Raga Bageshri ( in the descent) and a few subtle touches of Jaijaiwanti. If traditionally Bageshri evokes feelings of separation from the lover, and Rageshri represents reunion, Malgunji depicts the initial realization of the reunion… can u sense the mood…? read about the nava rasas at http://indian-classical-music-hindustani.blogspot.com/2011/05/nava-rasaas.html
19.   Pawan diwani na maane udaye - Lata. - Bageshree Bahar
20.   Phir Chiddi Raat Baat Phoolon ki ..Lata &Talat Aziz/Khyyam/" Bazaar" (1982)
21.   Radha Na Bole-Azaad Lata‘s popular number from AZAD (1955), set to music by C. Ramchandra
22.   Shubh Gadhi Aayee Re - Razia Sultan
23.   Voh Khushi Mili Hai Mujhko- Mere Huzoor (Mohammed Rafi) Bageshree is yearning, pathos, prayer, and the call to a beloved... Though there is a bit of a Bageshri angle...depends on where you assume Sa is
1.      BHOR BHAI BHAIRAV GUN GAO http://indian-classical-music-hindustani.blogspot.com/2011/07/bhor-bhai-bhairav-gun-gao-sweekar-kiya.html Hemanti Sukla - Sweekar kiya maine (swarmala of raagas) अति सुंदर बागेश्वरी
2.      Nis din bisrat http://indian-classical-music-hindustani.blogspot.com/2011/07/nis-din-bisrat-goonj-uthi-shehnayi-1959.html  At 7:33, a सरगम  in राग  बागेश्री  “सा  नि    नि     नि     प्  गा  रे  सा ..”
3.      Piu piu re karat hai http://indian-classical-music-hindustani.blogspot.com/2011/07/piu-piu-re-karat-hai-baiju-bawra-1952.html Piu piu re karat hai  "विद्वानों  की  वाणी  में  बस कर   हे  री  हे  मैं  कैसे  घर  आऊँ  मितवा ”.
Non-Film Ghazals
1.      Baharon ko chaman yaad aa gaya hai! http://www.esnips.com/doc/26eb8922-af96-4d2a-93a6-a7f44dced878/02-Track-2 This beautiful and rare composition, in Raag Bageshri, sung by Ghulam Ali. Another treat is the tabla played by Abdul Sattar Tari, who, by some Gurus has been ranked as the best tabla player ever existed. Tari Khan accompanied Mehdi Hassan too during most of his hey days.. For a while he also played wth Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan!
2.      Chaman Mein Rang-e-Bahaar Utraa - Live - A Ghazal by Ghulam Ali
4.      Poochhta jaa mere marghat se - Ghulam Ali
5.      Raag Bageshri ( a short tarana ) by Rustum Fateh Ali Khan .flv
6.      Raag Bageshri a stunning Sufi mystical ghazal by Abida Parveen "Yar tha/ mein na tha".flv https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JUtHseN_zUU
7.      RAAG BAGESHRI by MADAM FARIDA KHANUM of Patiala Gharana. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8Gar5i7sXWU
8.      Uzr Aane' Main Bhi...!!! FARIDA KHANUM version
Non-Film Bhajans Gurubani
Classical compositions: Vocal
1.      Ustad Bade Ghulam Ali Khan~Bageshree Tarana - it was rare for bade ghulam ali khan to be accompanied on harmonium so prominently. just think how much nicer sarangi accompaniment would have sounded here. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qj3ItA3Ff1g
3.      Mogubai Kurdikar‘s tarana is set to the 15-matra Sawaritala.

7.      BAGESHRI - USTAD FATEH ALI KHAN & RUSTAM FATEH ALI KHAN https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IGTA62G69Yc
8.      Raag Baageshwari - Vilambit Khayal - kaun gat bhai - Part 1 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AxzkaFnuPL8
9.      Pandit Ramashreya Jha “Ramrang” is on hand with his masterful précis, recorded over the California-Allahabad telephone link.  He accomplishes in 4 minutes what reams of paper can’t.
10.   Shubha Mudgal in a dual role of composer and singer.  About the verses she says: “They are from the Vaishnava temple texts that I enjoy so much, and it is what the Vaishnavas call a Malhar ka pada.  I have composed other verses from the same category in Gaud Malhar, Miyan Malhar etc but I did not feel like singing this one in a Malhar and for some inexplicable reason composed it in Bageshree.
11.   The terrain of Marathi natyageeta is studded with Bageshree gems. Vasantrao Deshpande hauls a couple of delectable items of which the first is from MRUCCHAKATIK: jana sare.
12.   The much-loved dindi from SAUBHADRA (note the use of Urdu words in the mukhda): bahut din nacha bhetalo.
13.   An alumnus of the Dagar school of dhrupad, Nimai Chand Boral trained under Tansen Pande (Husainuddin Dagar) and N. Moinuddin Dagar.  Hisalap culminates in the Chautala-based prathama nada.
14.   The composition, binati suno mori, tuned by Vishnu Digambar Paluskar is standard issue for Gwalior performers.  His pupils Vinayakrao Patwardhan and Narayanrao Vyas.
15.   The reflective temper of Amir Khan is well-matched to Bageshree’s expansive space.  The rich, measured strokes of his vocal brush hold us captive to this séance.  He picks up a traditional vilambitcomposition, bahu guna ka mana, and tops it off with a tarana.
16.   In his day, Rajab Ali Khan (1874-1959) was known as much for his tremendous musical acumen as for his picaresque ways.  A master vocalist, he was also proficient on the Rudra Veena, Sitar and Jala-Tarang. Several musicians of high standing learnt from him, among them his nephew Amanat Khan, Nivruttibuwa Sarnaik, Ganpatrao Dewaskar and others.  Lata Mangeshkar, too, briefly took taleemfrom Rajab Ali during her stint under Aman Ali.  He sings the traditional composition, kaun karata tori binati.
17.   Mushtaq Hussain Khan of Rampur-Sahaswan.
18.   Among the most curious phenomenon in Indian music in recent times is the emergence of the “child prodigy.” There is one in every family, especially in Carnatic circles.  Upon examination, however, he usually turns out to be (in Bertrand Russell‘s marvelous phrase) “more child than prodigy.”  We have here a pre-pubescent Kumar Gandharva toying with the chestnut, gunda laa’o re malaniyan. This may have some curio or flutter value, but not much else.
19.   Shaila Datar: eri piharva ghara aavo.
20.   K.G. Ginde puts a spin on the standard Bageshree, calling it “Sampoorna Bageshree.” Here, both rishab and pancham are free-flowing.  The careful listener will also sense a special sanchari or two: reeta na mori.
21.   K.V. Narayanaswamy sings a composition of the renowned Carnatic vocal master, M.D. Ramanathan.  The raga-lakshanas come aglow in this beautiful rendition: sagara shayana vibho.
22.   Bade Ghulam Ali Khan deals a fantabulous Bageshree in this unpublished nugget.  The traditional vilambit, kaun gata bha’ili, is followed by a tarana.
23.   Kishori Amonkar matches Amir Khan swara-for-swara.
24.   A two-part snapshot of Kesarbai Kerkar in a riveting unpublished mehfil.  The presentation is not pure Bageshree for freely interspersed are tidbits of Bahar and Kafi.  The second clip betrays Kesarbai’s genius, showing her for the glorious musician that she was: ruta basanta. Kesarbai – I. Kesarbai – II.
Classical compositions:
1.      Sitar Mehboob Nadeem Raga Bageshri Sitar Concert Part 1 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tvv8Zt09578&feature=related
2.      Violin N Rajam Violin Ut Shaik Dawood Tabla Raga Bageshree Part I https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=82XARrXFkpI
3.      Flute The Chicago-based bansuri artiste Shri Lyon Leifer plays khayal in this commercial release.
4.      Bismillah Khan.
5.      Santoor
a.      Madan Oak Santoor - Raga Bageshri - climax tihai https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L4DAXNnk0do
b.      Episode 344 Kunal Gunjal Santoor Bageshri https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b6t6T4e-D48 
6.      Harmonium Solo Harmonium (Riyaz) Bharat Joshi Raag Bageshree 01 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XmeJYb17Wv8
7.      Sarod
a.      Ustad Amjad Ali Khan - Raga Bageshri (Sarod) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z4CogWM1Tis
b.      11-11 Ustad Wajahat Khan, lecture&performance, Raag Bageshri on sarod https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uO5qZLOH2TI 
(other languages)
1.      Aaromale - Vinnaithandi Varuvaya [2010] -
2.      Antakanadutarige KiMchittu dayavilla by Purandaradasa
3.      Eru mayil eri vilayaducomposed by Arunagirinathar
4.      Kaise Kate Rajani Khudito Pashan Pratima Banerjee & Ustad Amir Khan - Another bandish from the Bengali film KSHUDITO PASHAN (1960), composed by the au naturel, nanga, naked, sans fabrique Emperor of San Rafael, Mr. Alu and joined with the immaculate voice of Amir Khan
7.      Malarukku tendral pagaiyaanaal - P Susheela and L R Easwari - Vswanathan & Ramamurthy - Tamil Film: Enga Veettu Pillai
8.      Maname ariyen by Papanasam Sivan
9.      Manmadha Leelai Before Bagesree was introduced to the south, the equivalent of it was Sriranjani which eschews the PA of the kafi scale, shadav-shadav rakhti raga. MSV composed a master piece in Sriranjani, rendered brilliantly by Vani Jayaram.
10.   Naadhamennum kovilile - Vani Jairam - M S  Viswanathan -Tamil Film"Manmadha Leelai"
11.   Nee ennenna sonnalum kavithai
12.   Nilave ennidam nerungade  PB Srinivas Tamil movie Ramu
14.   Rama bana ede - 
15.   Sagarasayana by M. D. Ramanathan
16.   TAMIL (G)OLD--Anbana mozhi pesum--SOLAI MALAI RANI
17.   Ghanu waje - Sant Dnyaneshwar abhang - Lata Mangeshkar – bhajan marathi
18.   -
Fusion music
1.      Tarana (The Perfumed Garden) Abhijit Pohankar - KD. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YOTJ0bp7Q8o Here's a modern fusion take on Bageshri by the father-son duo of Pt. Ajay Pohankar and Abhijit Pohankar. The album has another version of this by Smt. Arati Ankalikar Tikekar
2.      BAGESHREE RAAG SITAR FUSION FOR ICICI BANK BY SAMEEP https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C6jlUAJHXlE
3.      Sangam (Ukraine) - Raag Bageshree - Fusion https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4dEZqA0DYFA
4.      eapfrog Coke Studio MTV | bluefrog | Fusion | raag bageshri | feat. Gaurav Bhatt | HeatStrokes https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mwB1R2hDDY0
9.      Raag Shastra, Vol.1, pages174-177, and various other sources
Please refer to document “Notations / Swar Mapping” for abbreviations used for svaras / notations.