16 August, 2011
The Raag-anga is a different perspective of looking at raags in Hindustani Music, based on various rules that characterise certain “base” raagas from which other derivative raagas are believed to have evolved.
‘Raagang’ means a unique phrase in a Raaga suggesting its characteristic feature. This key-phrase is called as Raagang and if any Raaga contains this key-phrase, that Raaga belongs to the family of main Ang-Raag.
It is important to note that this is not a sub-classification of the ten Thaats defined by Pt. Bhatkhande. Rather, they form a sort of a “web” where you find two raags belonging to the same thaat being classified under different raag-angas, and vice versa.
Pt. N M Khare has listed such 30 Raagang-s, as follows:
1. Asa – RMPD = Asa, Bhavani, Maand, Arabhi.
2. Asavari – MPdP = Asawari, Jaunpuri, Dev Gandhar, Gandhari, Desi, Lachari Todi.
3. Bageshree – gMDn = Bageshree, Rageshree, Malgunji, Bahar, Kaunsi Kanada.
4. Bhairav – GMrS = Bhairav, Ramkali, Gunakri, Jogiya, Ahir Bhairav, Shivmat Bhairav, etc.
5. Bhairavi – gMdn / rndP = Malkauns, Bilaskhani Todi, Bhairavi, Basant Mukhari.
6. Bhatiyar – PGrS = Bhatiyar, Bhankaar, etc.
7. Bhoopali – PGRS = Bhoopali, Jait, Jait Kalyan.
8. Bihag – GMG – RS = Bihag, Bihagda, Patbihag, sawani Bihag, Nand etc.
9. Bilawal – P DG MGMRS = Types of Bilawal such as Alahaiya, Sarparda, Kukubh, Devgiri, Shukla Bilwal and other Raagas such as Gunkali, Deshkar, etc.
10. Dhanashree – MPgRS = Bhimapalasi, Dhani, Patdeep, Multani, Madhuvanti, etc.
11. Durga – DMRS = Durga, Gorakh Kalyan, Narayani.
12. Hindol – GmDS = Hindol, Sohani, Bhinna Shadja.
13. Kafi – MPgR = Kafi, Sindhura, Pradipki, etc.
14. Kalyan – PR S, RG = Bhoop, Marubihag, Jait Kalyan, Shyam Kalyan, many varieties of Kalyan, etc.
15. Kamod – GMRS = Kamod, Chhayanat, shyam Kalyan, Gaud Sarang.
16. Kanada – nPgMRS = Darbari, Adana, Nayaki, Shahana, Suha, Sughrai, Abhogi, Devsakh, Hussaini, Kafi Kanada.
17. Kauns – gMgS = Malkauns, Chandrakauns, Madhukauns, JogKauns, etc.
18. Kedar – mPDPM = Kedar, Jaldhar Kedar, Maluha Kedar, Chandani Kedar, Nat Kedar.
19. Khamaj – SGMP, nDP = Khamaj, Jhinjhoti, Tilang, Khambavati, Gara.
20. Lalit – NrGM = Lalit, Lalita Gauri, Pancham, Lalit Pancham, Lalit Bibhas, Prabhat Bhairaw, Basant Pancham.
21. Malhar – nDNS = Varieties of Malhar such as Miya, Ramdasi, Megh, Gaud Malhar, etc.
22. Marawa – DmGr = Marawa, Purva Kalyaan, Maligaura, Sajgiri, etc.
23. Nat – SR RG GM = Nat Bhairav, Nat Malhar, Nat Bihag, Chhayanat, etc.
24. Piloo – PdNS = Piloo, Barawa, some Dhun-Raagas.
25. Poorvi – dPmP = Poorwi, Paraj, Puriya Dhanashree, etc
26. Sarang – NpMR = Varieties of Sarang such as vrindavani, madhamad, shudhha, samat, miya ki, badhans sarang, etc. Also Soor Malhar.
27. Shankara – GPNP = Shankara, Malashree, Hamsadhwani.
28. Shree – rPmG = Shree, Triveni, Chaiti Gauri, etc.
29. Sorath – MPNSRnDP = Desh, Tilak Kamod, Jaijaiwanti.
30. Todi – rgrS = Varieties of Todi, such as gujari, bilaskhani, bahaduri Todi.
Importance of Raagang Padhhati
Even though 2 Raagas have the same notes, according to the phrasing (Pakad or Ang and Chalan), one can classify the Raagas in different Raagangs and Thaats.
Although Pandit Bhatkhande introduced the system of 10 Thaats to classify Raagas, he was aware of inadequacies of the system, and so, considering the Pakad, & Chalan of a Raaga, he suggested further classification using ‘Raagangs’. e.g. Raaga Bhoop uses the phrase ‘P RS, RG’ suggesting Kalyaan Ang, Raaga Bhoop is classified in Kalyaan Thaat. On the contrary, Raaga Deshkaar uses phrase ‘P DG’ suggesting Bilawal Ang, so he has classified it in Bilawal Thaat.
The Raagang Padhhati gives guidelines about improvisation of Raagas:
1. Komal Rishabh Asavari & Bilaskhani Todi have the same notes and both belong to Bhairavi Thaat. But as Bilaskhani Todi has Todi Raagang, it is improvised with Todi Ang and Komal Rishabh Asavari is improvised accordingly to Asavari Ang.
2. Gujari Todi, though is a Raaga from the Todi family, it is improvised with Marawa Ang, giving importance to dmgr phrase.
Raagang system makes it easy to identify other catagories of Raagas:
1. Sam-Prakrutik Raagas: Raagas with same emotion or nature, e.g. Patdeep and Madhuwanti.
2. Par-mel-praveshak Raagas: Raagas using notes common to 2 Thaats, e.g. Jaijaiwanti using Khamaj and Kafi Thaat.
3. Chhayalag Raagas: Raagas using tint or shade of some other Raaga, e.g. Lalit Pancham using tint of Raaga Pancham in Raaga Lalit.
The Raagang system gives a clear idea of the varieties of any Raagae.g. all Raagas in family of Bilawal prakar, use some common phrases of Bilawal Ang, and one can easily make a point in differentiating other types, such as Nat Bilawal (Bilawal with Nat ang), Yamani Bilawal (combination of Yaman & Bilawal), Sukhiya Bilawal (combination of Sawani & Bilawal), etc.