30 January, 2012

RAAG: HAMIR / HAMEER



RAAG: HAMIR / HAMEER
RAAG PARICHAY / DESCRIPTION:
Raga Hamir is a light raga from the Kalyana family of ragas which has characteristics of Raga Kedar with the addition of shuddha Ga being an integral part of the raag. Some assign it to Kafi that.

The special features of this raga are the use of two madhyams in the avroh, harmony of Ga and Dha, and the glissando connect suddha Ni and suddha Dha.

Raag Hamir is known to project a vigorous, dramatic mien. It is occasionally referred to as Hamir  Kalyan (not to be confused with Hamir Kalyani of the Carnatic paddhati, which is the equivalent of the Hindustani Kedar).
Thaat 
Kalyan.
Raag Hamir is nominally assigned to the Kalyan thAT and employs all the shuddha swaras plus the teevra madhyam. The association with the Kalyan group is debatable since the raag's structure reveals a significant presence of the Bilawal anga.
Origin
-
Svaras
Both Madhyam, rest all Shuddha Swaras  
Jaati
Sadava  Sampurna
Audhav - Sampurna

Aaroh
2.      S-R-G-m-(N)D-N-S' 
Rishabh & Pancham forbidden (varjya) in Aaroh, or less used
Vakra (occasional deployment of komal Nishad n in Avroh)
Avroh
S' N D P - M P D P - G m P G m R S
S'-N-D-P-MP-G-m-R-S
S’ N D P M P D P G m R S

Vaadi
D
Samvaadi
G
Pakad / Mukhya-Ang
Gm(N)D-P-MP-G-m-R-S
The much quoted and misused framework of Vadi-Samvadi notes in a Raag is not effective in Raag delineation and besides the Mukhya Ang the S-P , S-M & P-R , R -P Bhavas are more powerful in this respect.
Employment of Meend and Khatka in arriving at Dhaivat from Nishad adds to tonal beauty. The following combinations illustrate the Raag effectively.
R R S - P - G mP G m R ,N S –
R S G m ND D P - PM DP MP G m R –
R G m D P G m R S - G m ND N s D - D N S' –
S'R' S's D D P G mP G m R S.
R G m D P G m R S 
In such fashion an occasional deployment of Rishabh in Aaroh is permissible for beautification of the melodic form.
A sample chalan of Raag Hamir  is now formulated:
G M (N)D, P, G M D N S", S" N D P m P G M R, P G M R S S
Obiter dicta: The teevra madhyam remains confined in the shadow of the pancham and seldom has an independent existence. Some treatments explicity take in the Kalyanic clusterm D N D P (thus strengthening the case for "Hamir  Kalyan") but in most expositions the presence of Kalyan is subdued. The reader is encouraged to reflect on the Bilawal and Kalyan angas and their interaction in the context of Hameer. Occasionally there obtains an AbhAsa of the komal nishAd in the form of a vivAdi swara.

Drone
P
Mishra Raag
Light music compositions usually in mishra raag, i.e you may see usage of other svaras / raagas in compositions for beauty.
Special Svar Usage / Khaas Prayog
The melodic contours of Hamir are vakra and Aroh and avaroh follow from the raag-lakshanas and not the other way around. The Aroha & avarohana set merely indicates the swaras deployed and an approximate sequence of their occurrence. It is not a statement or even a précis of the internal constitution of a raag.
Nominally we may define the Aroha/avarohana set of Hamir  as follows:
S, R G m (N)D, N D N S"::S" N D P, M P G m R, S
The essence of Hamir lies in the curvature imparted to its Arohi prayogas and the crucial role accorded the dhaivat. It falls to the class of abstract raagas such as Kedar, Gaud Sarang, Nand and so on. By "abstract" we mean that it is not a scalar raag, amenable to constitution with elemental Aroha-avarohi phrases, that there is more to it than a chaining together and summing up a group of linear tonal clusters.
The happy marriage of swara punctuation and enunciation (captured by the term "ucchAraNa") necessary for effective expression of abstract raags is attained to by judicious tAleem and long periods of reflection. We shall now examine the lakshaNAs and these pointers in concert with the attached sound files should help clarify the overall picture.

The key idea in Hamir lies in the periodic build-up of melodic stress and its release. The ArohAtmaka attack on the dhaivat tugged with the nishAd inscribes the Hamir signature. To wit,
G M (N)D, (N)D m P
Vishranti Sthan
S D S' - S' D P R
Niyaas
The dhaivat is powerful, a nyAsa swara and a source of the raag's veera rasa. The pancham is also a nyAsa sthAna and serves as a point of repose, a station for dissipation of the 'tension' built up on the dhaivat.
G M (N)D, D N D P m P, P G M R, R P G M R S S
Notice the approach to the dhaivat via the nishAd. Sometimes, an unornamented linear G M D generates a pleasing contrast. The D-R 'consonance' is often exploited by alternating tonal activity around these two endpoints. The rishab is rendered deergha in avarohAtmaka prayogas and is sought frequently for bringing to conclusion a melodic thought in the poorvAnga region.
G M (N)D N S"
PDPP S", S" (N)R" S"
mPDNS", S" R" S"
These are some of the prescribed modes for an uttarAnga launch.
S", S" (N)D, (N)D N m P, S" (N)D P m P G M R
This is an example of an avarohi prayoga.
Saptak Pradhaanta
Madhya-Tar
Samay / Time / Season
(9 PM - 12 Night) : 2nd Prahar of the Night : Ratri ka Dwitiya Prahar - so some may use P vaadi..
Mukhya-Ang
P - G m ND s - D P - G m P G m SR S
Ras
This is a powerful melody of Veer-Rasa (fills one with enthusiasm & courage of warriors) and is very dynamic.
The combinations G M ND - D D P alone instantly kindle the melodic form. The notes bear a strong Shadja-Pancham relationship in 13 Shruti-span consonance called Shadja-Pancham Bhav e.g. S-P - R-D - G-N - M-S'. Shadj-Madhyam
Relationship with Carnatic Music
-
Relationship with Western scale
-
Raag Vistaar
-
Lakshan geet
-
Lessons
Common Usage
One finds in Hamir a variety of old Dhrupad, Dhamar and Khayal compositions. Just as Nand is a staple of the Agra/Atrauli diet, so it is with Hamir and the musicians of the Gwalior Gharana.
Related Raagas
Raag Kedar. Raag Kamod = same notes, different chalans.
Combinations
Hamir Bahaar
Do not confuse with
Hamir Kalyani of the Carnatic paddhati, which is the equivalent of the Hindustani Kedar.
COMPOSITIONS:
Hindi Film Songs
1.      Jao re jogi tum – Amrapali
2.      Madhuban Me Radhika Nache Re,Giridhar Ki Muraliya  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cBs2XacMtSk http://www.sawf.org/audio/hameer/rafi.ram  Dilip kumar ji was himself quite proficient in sitar vaadan. This song is notable for the wonderful composition and rendition, but also the beautiful kathak moves of kumkum. Raag Hamir  is represented in popular Indian consciousness by the all time classic from KOHINOOR (1960) where the formidable talents of master tunesmith Naushad, lyricist Shakeel Badayuni, and the voice of Mohammad + Also with a classical bandish Mainde Yaar Aavin after madhuban mein. Rafi come together in a celebration of Shri Krishna's Leela. 
4.      Shri Ramchandra Kriplu Bhaja Mana Film - Bharat Milap Rupaktal Shankarrao Vyas Bharat Milap (1942) - Sri Ramchandra Kripalu - Title Song kripAlu bhaja mana http://www.sawf.org/audio/hameer/shriramchandra.ram  The movie BHARAT MILAP (1942) carried Tulsidas's famous bhajan Shri Ramchandra Although Shankarrao Vyas scored the music for the film, the tune for this bhajan was conceived by his guru, Vishnu Digambar Paluskar. It is set to Tevra tAla of 7 beats. 
5.      sur ki gati maiN kyA jAnu ek bhajan karnA jAnu - http://www.sawf.org/audio/hameer/mukesh.ram  - The sincerity in Mukesh's voice immediately lends credibility to the bhAva of the lyric, set to music by Naresh Bhattacharya:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eJUUxtF_AyE
Non-Film Ghazals

Non-Film Bhajans
Classical compositions: Vocal
1.      abira gulAla lAla kesara ranga chhirakata - http://www.sawf.org/audio/hameer/gundecha.ram
Hamir  is primed for Dhrupad gAyaki and the Dagar dudes sing it very well. They insert their own spin - an explicit use of the Kalyan-inspired sentence S R G m P. This feature is heard (at 5:25 into the clip) in a mehfil recording of the Gundecha brothers of a traditional Dhamar composition.
2.      ajaba duniyA - http://www.sawf.org/audio/hameer/kumar_hameer_drut.ram  Notice that Kumar offers an idiosyncratic surprise in the poorvAnga treatment with his repeated utterance of GMRG, R instead of the customary approach to R. Kumars' is a splendid exhibition of the 'tension and release' disposition of Hameer. Notice the little twist where he treats the teevra madhyam in an explicit Kalyan-like cluster of the type: G M D m D NS" NDNDP. 
3.      albeli naveli re  http://www.sawf.org/audio/hameer/jha_hameer_drut1.ram  drut Ektala composition is delightful, especially the manner in which it scrambles back to the sam
7.      Chameli phooli champA http://www.sawf.org/audio/hameer/kumar_hameer_vil.ram  Kumar Gandharva's 1982 full-length feature on Hamir is memorable. He opens with the traditional Khayal composition in vilambit Jhoomra, chameli phooli champA. Although this bandish has an awkward placement of the sam on the "cham" syllable, Kumar manages to make it sound less obscene than it really is. But even he cannot seem to make up his mind initially just where to locate the sam. The very first attempt crashes in no man's land, another one on "pA" and so on.
8.      chameli phooli khayal - http://www.sawf.org/audio/hameer/mudgal_vil.ram  Shubha Mudgal's forceful voice is especially well suited to Hameer. She sings amended appropriately to relocate the sam to "pA".
9.      chunariyA lA de re more saiyyAN - http://www.sawf.org/audio/hameer/jha_hameer_drut2.ram 
12.  Karana chahooN Raghupati - http://www.sawf.org/audio/hameer/nvyas.ram  Gwalior entry features Narayanrao Vyas wielding a composition of his venerable guru Vishnu Digambar Paluskar.
13.  khayal http://www.sawf.org/audio/hameer/faiyyaz_hameer.ram A rare glimpse of Faiyyaz Khan's Hamir 
14.  Khayal http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DQ8hENypIkY&feature=related teri pyari lage Dekhi aisi pyari naar Sundar 2 Murat 2 Chab gat chab gat nyari nyari Hasat hasat phool jharat jharat Mukhi se peeli paanan laal laal Khawat Dekhawat Inayat Kapol Nutan Bani Dulhan 4/4 . Is mostly the tarana- Dhin Ta NA . 
17.  laagi lagan http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WyoJ-oI0q6w&feature=related  Munshi Raziuddin & Sons (1992).
18.  langarwA kaise ghar jA'ooN - http://www.sawf.org/audio/hameer/mishra.ram The Mishra brothers are summoned here for this Hamir chestnut, sthai:
dheet langarawa kaise ghar jaaoon langarawa
suna paave more saasna nanandiya, chhand de mohe...
antara:
hoon chali pan ghatavaa thaado
kaun bahaane pyaare balama
chin layi mori sis gagariyaa
barajori piya kinhi sundarawa,
Kaise....
19.  Mai Tou Lagi Ray Toray Charan Vaaa - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wWCsbWO0FBc&feature=related Tribute to the Hazrat nizamuddin.
21.  menDera yAr Avi. - http://www.sawf.org/audio/hameer/bgak.ram Enter Bade Ghulam Ali Khan. The great man's unpublished mehfil recording where he outlines the chalans of Kedar and Hameer. Then follows the traditional Punjabi bandish.
22.  morA albelA re http://www.sawf.org/audio/hameer/krsp.ram  Sadarang well-known Khayal - A big favourite of the Gwalior musicians, Krishnarao Shankar Pandit's name cannot be omitted in any discussion of Hameer. This recording was made in the final years of his long life and, lapses aside, it is hard to miss the grandeur and certainty of his swara-lagAv.
23.  patiyA piyA ki - http://www.sawf.org/audio/hameer/mudgal_drut.ram Shubha also offers a sprightly cheez composed by Vinaychandra Maudgalya.
24.  suno mori bAta Khwaja - http://www.sawf.org/audio/hameer/salamat.ram Salamat Ali Khan's marvellous Dhamar rendition carries a gentle caress of the komal nishAd in a vivAdi role (around 1:57 into the clip) alluded to earlier: 
25.  Surajhaa rahee ho surajhata naahi, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jKTMUf39I_E&feature=related Surajhaa rahee huun surajhata naahi, Urajhe nainana kaise surajhaau, Gunijana paree prema kee jinako, Nita utha laage rahe nita urajhe.s
26.  surajhAya rahi - http://www.sawf.org/audio/hameer/paluskar.ram Another Gwalior snapshot in D.V. Paluskar's classic rendition.
27.  Tarana http://www.sawf.org/audio/hameer/kashalkar.ram  The usually capable Ulhas Kashalkar fails to generate the required propulsion in this old Gwalior Tarana.
28.  TARANA like I always say, is the best vocal flavour of a raag: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7B4LjYZkxY0
29.  tu kaun kahAN - http://www.sawf.org/audio/hameer/jha_hameer_vil.ram
vilambit roopak bandish, of the melodic build-up and its effortless resolution.

Classical compositions:
Instrumental
4.      Ravi Shankar http://www.sawf.org/audio/hameer/ravishankar.ram  Changing into the instrumental lane, we hear the distillate of Hamir  with a striking economy of swaras, a characteristic of that brilliant musical mind.
6.      Violin
7.      Flute http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=glZ3zdG10ew still challanging to get Ga-Ma-Dha with meend (glide)
8.      Santoor
9.      Harmonium
10.  Sarod

Miscellaneous
(other languages)
1.      vimala adhara nikaTi moha hA http://www.sawf.org/audio/hameer/haldankar.ram  To complete the 'light' segment we have the Marathi natyageeta from VIDYAHARAN, vimala adhara nikaTi moha hA, made popular in an earlier era by Suresh Haldankar (1926-2000) of Goa. This brilliant musician, consigned to a life of obscurity for much of his adult life, shone but briefly in the late 1940s and early 1950s. He and my father were great childhood friends. 
2.      natyageeta Prabhakar Karekar http://www.sawf.org/audio/hameer/karekar.ram 


RESOURCES / WEBSITES:


NOTE: please refer to document “Notations / Swar Mapping” for abbreviations used for svaras / notations.


02 January, 2012

RAAG: YAMAN



RAAG: YAMAN
RAAG PARICHAY / DESCRIPTION:
Raaga Yaman (also known as Raga Iman), is very romantic in nature.
Thaat 
KALYAN
Origin
Some say its origin is from the Persian mode “Ei’man” from which “Yaman” came about. Others say it has Vedic origins as Raaga Yamuna which through time had its pronunciation altered as Yaman. Nonetheless, this raaga is often taught to beginners in North Indian music.
Svaras
Important anuvaadi = P
Jaati
Sadava – Sampurna
Aaroh
‘N R G M D N S’ / S R G M P D N S'
Avroh
S’ N D P M G R S
Vaadi
G
Samvaadi
N
Pakad / Mukhya-Ang
‘N R G M P R G R ‘N R S
Drone
P
Mishra Raag
Light music compositions usually in mishra raag, i.e you may see usage of other svaras / raagas in compositions for beauty.
Special Svar Usage / Khaas Prayog
Bhaav = Shadj-Pancham
Vishranti Sthan

Niyaas

Saptak Pradhaanta
Mandra (Poorvaang)
Samay / Time / Season
Mukhya-Ang

Ras
“It is full of unexplored beauty, mystique and depth - something utterly magical.
Raaga YAMAN is a veritable ocean - fathomless, horizonless, tranquil, full of dignity & repose. What musicians play is only the tip of its musical iceberg. Yaman is a raga for every mood, every ras, every situation. It is unmistakably the one raaga that serves as a divine channel for communicating with GOD.” http://www.epinett.com/etubes/watch.php?v=a_nGmn0XlEs
Relationship with Carnatic Music
In South Indian weddings this is a very prominently played rāga. The word kalyani means she who causes auspicious things.
It is the 65th melakarta rāga under the Katapayadi sankhya. It is also called Mechakalyani (Sanskritमेचकल्याणि). The notes for Kalyaniare S R2 G3 M2 P D2 N3.
Relationship with Western scale
F-mode Lydian
Raag Vistaar

Lakshan geet
Lessons
Common Usage

Similar Raagas
1.      Yaman Kalyan, exact same structure, except for shuddha ma skillfully sandwiched between shuddha ga and shuddha re. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xLhyL8NBNpc http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ThUIuZl0Miw http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GwLtD8XAihQ
2.      if M changed to m in avroah only = YK, if M à m in both aaroh & avroh = Raag Bilaval!
3.      Raag Khem
Related Raagas
Combinations
Do not confuse with
COMPOSITIONS:
Hindi Film Songs
1.      Aansu Bhari Hai Ye Jivan Ki Rahe - Film Parvarish (1958) Singer Mukesh Lyrics Hasrat Jaipuri Music
2.      Aansu bhari hain ye jeevan ki raahein - Parvarish
3.      Aap ke anurodh pe, main ye geet sunaata hoon - Anurodh
4.      Abhi na jayo chhor kar, ke dil abhi bhara nahi - Hum Dono
5.      Anita - Tum Been Jeevan Kaise Beeta - Mukesh http//www.youtube.com/watch?v=ScpgGscC1Ec
6.      Beeti na bitaayi raina - Parichay
7.      Bhuuli Huyi Yaadon Mujhe Itna Na Sataao Mukesh in Sanjog http//www.youtube.com/watch?v=eX7tIeuvnV0&feature=youtu.be
8.      Chandan sa badan, chanchal chitavan - Saraswati Chandra
10.  Dattaram  http//youtu.be/C1n5OhT6R2I
11.  Dil diya dard liya - TITLE SONG 
12.  Do naina matawaare tihaare, ham par zulm karen - Chhoti Bahan
13.  Ehsaan tera hoga mujh par - Junglee
14.  Ehsan Tera Hoga Mujh Par Junglee - (Male) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oBBKIPsA55k
15.  Gaana mere bus ki baat naheen - ASTITVA
17.  Inhi logon ne le leena dupatta mera - Pakeezah
18.  Is mor se jaate hain - Aandhi
19.  Jaane vaale se mulaaqaat na hone paayi - Amar
20.  Jab deep jale aana, jab shaam dhale aana - Chitchor
21.  Jeevan Dor Tumhi Sang Bandhi-Sati Savitri-Lata Mangeshkar http//www.youtube.com/watch?v=CdXJ8jq4zzI
22.  Jiya le gayo re mora saanwariya - Anpadh
23.  Junglee - Ehsan Tera Hoga Mujh Par (Male) http//www.youtube.com/watch?v=oBBKIPsA55k
24.  Kaheen ye woh to naheen - HAQEEQAT
25.  Lagta nahin hai dil mera - Laal Quila
26.  Man re tu Kahe na - Mohammad Rafi http//www.youtube.com/watch?v=uA2FhgF6VY4&feature=youtu.be
27.  Mausam hai aashikaana, ai dil kahin se unko - Pakeezah
28.  Mere to Giridhar Gopal  MEERA - - Hema Malini Vani Jairam http//www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rsj9yTmKWAQ&feature=youtu.be
29.  Nigahen milane ko jee chahata hai - Dil Hi To Hai
30.  phir na kije meri gustakh..asha-mukesh- sahir ludhianvi-khaiyyam-phir subah hogi http//www.youtube.com/watch?v=rau5gPhmYwE
ram ji, bada dukh deena - Ram Lakhan
32.  Saranga Teri Yaad Mein Saranga Mukesh
33.  Tu Jo Mere Sur Mein Sur Milaye from Movie chitchor http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pNiFNdwfCGM&feature=youtu.be

Non-Film Ghazals
1.      Aaj jaane ki zid na karo (Geet)
2.      Ranjish hi sahi, dil hi dukhane ke liye aa (Ghazal)
Non-Film Bhajans
1.       
Classical compositions: Vocal
5.      Tappa
Classical compositions:
Instrumental
3.      Flute “It is full of unexplored beauty, mystique and depth - something utterly magical. Raaga YAMAN is a veritable ocean - fathomless, horizonless, tranquil, full of dignity & repose. What musicians play is only the tip of its musical iceberg. Yaman is a raga for every mood, every ras, every situation. It is unmistakably the one raaga that serves as a divine channel for communicating with GOD.” http://www.epinett.com/etubes/watch.php?v=a_nGmn0XlEs http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pP3y8zqPZuU
6.      Sarod rare ustaad lesson = In this video Ustad Amjad Ali Khan continues to sing through his sarod, this time mesmerizingly in Raag Yaman. Look out for the brilliant potrayal of the 'Karun Ras' - the feeling of sadness and melancholy in this piece (in this particular song, its the feeling a lover feels without her 'piya' or beloved).  This short masterpiece illustrates how the seven 'swar's can be used to portray any human emotion comprehensively and that a Raag is not just a mere set of notes but is an instrument, which when in able hands can paint any picture on the canvas of human mind. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7dprJBRkXuk  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wYxJ87RgJnE
7.      Dhrupad style veena
Miscellaneous
(other languages)
1.      Preetam aan milo
3.       

RESOURCES / WEBSITES:


NOTE: please refer to document “Notations / Swar Mapping” for abbreviations used for svaras / notations.