10 October, 2016

40 PRINCIPLES OF INDIAN CLASSICAL MUSIC (as stated by Vishnu Narayana Bhaatkhande)

1.      Bilawal is a Shuddha Saptak or Thaat (The basic [natural] scale).
2.      Raags are divided into 3 main categories, which are called Jaatis:
    1. Audava (5 swaras),
    2. Shadav (6 swaras) and
    3. Sampurna (7 swaras).
3.      A Raag must have at least 5 or more musical notes out of total 7 (including Komal and Tivra).
4.      Expansion of the 3 main Jaatis form 9 total Jaatis based upon the number of swaras used in Aaroh and Avaroh of the Raag. The 9 Jaatis are:
    1. Audava-Audava (5-5),  
    2. Audava-Shadava (5-6),
    3. Audava-Sampurna (5-7),
    4. Shadava-Audava (6-5),
    5. Shadava-Shadava (6-6),
    6. Shadava-Sampurna (6-7),
    7. Sampurna-Audava (7-5),
    8. Sampurna- Shadava (7-6),
    9. Sampurna-Sampurna (7-7).
5.      The Raag is categorized under some Thaat and has Aaroh, Avaroh, Vaadi, Samvaadi, Time of singing, rasa etc.
6.      Samvaadi is either fourth or fifth to the Vaadi swara. If ‘Vaadi’ is in the first half of the scale (Purvang/East) then ‘Samvaadi’ will be in the second part (Uttarang/West) and vice versa.
7.      Reversing (changing) the Vaadi swara from purvang to uttarang of the scale, can change the Raag and its time of singing.
8.      Melody of the Raag may be increased by using ‘Vivaadi’ swara but it is not advisable to the students.
9.      Vaadi swara is the deciding note that the particular Raag is Poorva-Raag or an Uttara-Raag.
10.   Fixing the time of Raags is based on 3 categories shown below:
    1. Komal Re, Dha;  
    2. Shuddha Re, Dha and
    3. Komal Ga, Ni.
11.   Ma is called adhav-darshak swara and it decides whether the Raag is to be sung at the time of day or night.
12.   Where the swaras Komal Ga, Ni are present, the Raag will be sung in the afternoon or mid-night.
13.   Sandhi-Prakash Raags are normally followed by Raags with Re, Ma, Dha, Ni shudha.
14.   Shadaja, Madhyam and Pancham are important swaras in the Raags of third prahar of day or night.
15.   Tivra Madhyam is mainly present in the night time Raags and rarely in the day time Raags.
16.   Sa, Ma and Pa swaras are accepted as a part of purvaang and also the uttaraang of the scale (Saptak). So the Raags with the Vaadi swara from these notes can be performed at any time and they are called ‘Sarav-Kaalik-Raags”.
17.   Ma and Pa both cannot be absent from a Raag.
18.   Shadaja swara is always present in each Raag i.e. Shadaja cannot be a Varjit swara of a Raag.
19.   Both forms of a swara in a Raag cannot be performed after one another but exceptions are there as in Raag Lalit.
20.   The beauty of the Raag can be enhanced by performing at the time defined.
21.   Tivra Madhyam and Komal Nishadh together in a Raag are found very rarely.
22.   The Raags with both Madhyam are similar in nature. Their Aaroh differs but the Avaroh is quite similar. Entrance of the Antraas in these Raags is also similar.
23.   The Raags of first prahar of the night with both Madhyams, Shuddha Ma is present in Aroh and Avaroh but Tivra Ma is utilized in Avaroh only and the Thaat with Tivra Madhyam is used for this type of Raags instead of thaats with Shudha Madhyam.
24.   The rule in Raags of first prahar of night: Nishadh in Aaroh and Gandhar in Avaroh are used as Vakra-Swara. Normally Nishadh is weak in Avaroh.
25.   In Indian classical music ‘Raag’ is more important than ‘Taal’ but in Carnatic Music it is opposite. Here the Taal is more important than Raag.
26.   The special characteristic of Poorva-Raags is in their Aroh and the Uttar-Raags in Avaroh.
27.   Each thaat can produce Poorva-Raags and Uttar-Raags.
28.   In ‘Gambhir-Prakriti’ (serious natured) Raags, Sa Ma and Pa are the most important swaras and mostly they are more effective in the Mandra-Saptak (lower octave) but in Kshudra-Raags (light-mood/Thumri-ang Raags) this is absent.
29.   Karun’ and ‘Shant’ rasa is present in ‘Sandhi-Prakash-Raag’, ‘Shringar’ and ‘Hasya’ in Raags with Re Ga Dha shudha and Raags with Komal Ga, Ni bring into play ‘Veer’ and ‘Raudra’ Rasa.
30.   Par-Male-Praveshak’ Raags (with the character of two thaats) are rendered at the time of entering from one thaat’s Raags to another thaat’s Raags.
31.   Sandhi-Prakash’ Raags are sung at the time of sunrise and sunset and they are followed by the Raags with Re, Ga, Dha shudha or Raags with Ga, Ni, Komal.
32.   In the Raags with Komal Nishadh as in Raags Kafi and Khamaj normally Shuddha Nishadh is also practised in their Aroh.
33.   A group of two, three or four notes may be called ‘Taan’ but not ‘Raag’.
34.   The swaras (notes) in a Raag can be used as less, more or equal, and less are not prohibited.
35.   Sa, Ma and Pa swaras are prominent in the Raags sung after twelve in the morning and night.
36.   Swara Re and Dha are either absent or insignificant in the Aaroh of afternoon Raags but Ga and Ni are at their bursting magnificence.
37.   The Raags with Sa, Ma or Pa as Vaadi Swaras are of serious (Gambhir) nature.
38.   In the morning Raags Komal Re, Dha are prominent and sunset time Raags have prominence of Shuddha Dha and Ni.
39.   ‘NSrG’ combination of swaras immediately indicates the ‘Sandhi-Prakash’ (daybreak or twilight) Raags.
40.   Poorva Raags are highly structured in their Aroh and Uttar Raags are more elaborate in Avaroh.

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